Menstrual Disorders

In female lifecycle, years between puberty and menopause is when menstruation occurs. Menstruation, Menses or period as commonly known is like clockwork starting and stopping at almost same time, with healthy blood flow and little inconvenience, this is healthy menstruation. Whereas some women experience heavy bleeding or completely no periods for months and unmanageable physical and emotional symptoms, this is because of some menstrual disorder which need to be taken care of timely.

Menstrual disorder:

Definition of normal is different from body to body. In general, one should be concern when period comes in less than 21 days or more than 3 months apart, or if they last for less that 2 days or more than 10 days. All this indicate some kind of mensuration disorder.

Dysmenorrhea (Painful Cramps)

Cramping during menstruation is common, but severe and frequent cramping is termed as Primary dysmenorrhea, it starts from lower abdomen and spreads to lower back and thighs, with heavy bleeding pain turns from severe to worse. In secondary dysmenorrhea this pain is accompanied with conditions like uterine fibroids or endometriosis.

Menorrhagia (heavy bleeding)

Blood loss in normal mensuration is about 30 ml which is approximately 5 tablespoons, in simple words needs to change pad 3 to 4 times per day. In Menorrhagia bleeding is 10 to 20 times more than normal and may last for 7 days or more. In this large clot formation with painful cramping is also common.

  • Reason of Heavy menstrual bleeding can be :
  • • Hormonal imbalances
  • • Structural abnormalities in the uterus, such as polyps or fibroids
  • • Medical conditions such as thyroid problems, blood clotting disorders, Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), leukemia, medications, such as anticoagulant drugs and some synthetic hormones.
  • • Gynecologic conditions such as complications from an IUD, fibroids, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy (which occurs when a fertilized egg begins to grow outside your uterus, in fallopian tubes).
  • • Infections

Amenorrhea (absence of Menstruation)

This is completely opposite position to heavy bleeding means no bleeding. No menstruation during Pregnancy, pre puberty and post menopause are the only normal conditions, other than that missing period is a concern which needs doctors’ consultations.

  • Reason of Heavy menstrual bleeding can be :
  • • Primary Amenorrhea, missing menstruation after age 16. In simple words where a girl shows no sexual development like pubic hair or breast development by age 13 or Any girl who don’t have periods by 15 years should seek doctor for primary amenorrhea.
  • • Secondary amenorrhea, when regular period stops for at least 3 months. It can be caused by problems that affect estrogen levels, including stress, weight loss, exercise or illness.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

PMS is used to describe emotional, physical and psychological symptoms related to menstrual cycle. These symptoms usually start after 14- 15 day of cycle and settle within 4 days after bleeding begin. Bloating, swollen and painful breasts, fatigue, constipation, headache, anger, anxiety or confusion, mood swings and tension, crying and depression, inability to concentrate etc are some of PMS symptoms